What is a communication disorder?
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What is Communication Disorder?
A communication disorder is an impairment in the ability to receive, send, process, and comprehend concepts or verbal, nonverbal and graphic symbol systems. (ASHA（1）) It affects one’s daily communication quality and social interaction significantly. In turn, one’s self-esteem, self-confidence towards social activities will be affected as well. It consists of motor speech disorder and language disorder.
What is Aphasia?
Aphasia is a language disorder that results from damage to the parts of the brain that contain language (typically in the left half of the brain). It affects speaking, understanding, reading, and writing, but does not affect intelligence. Individuals with aphasia may also have other problems, such as dysarthria, apraxia, or swallowing problems.(ASHA) It can co-occur with motor speech disorders.
What is Dysarthria?
Dysarthria is a motor speech disorder. It causes reduced movement/weakness of the muscles used for speech production, including the lips, tongue, vocal folds, and/or diaphragm (ASHA). It can co-occur with apraxia and/or aphasia.
What is Apraxia of Speech?
Apraxia of speech (AOS) is a motor speech disorder characterized by impaired coordination of oral motor movements necessary to produce speech sounds (Ogar et. Al., 2005（2）). It affects the speech clarity significantly. It can co-occur with dysarthria and/or aphasia.
What is Dysphagia?
Dysphagia is the medical term for swallowing difficulties. Some people with dysphagia have problems swallowing certain foods or liquids, while others can't swallow at all. (NHS, UK（3））
（1）ASHA: American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.
（2）Ogar J. et. al. Apraxia of Speech: An Overview. Neurocase (2005) 11, 427-432.
（3）National Health Service, United Kingdom.